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No 36
Vol. 36 No. 14
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Tarikh Jahangushay is written by Alaeddin Ata Malik Mohammad Juvayni (681-623AD), an Iranian historian and writer. This book, known as Tarikh Jahangushay Juvayni, is one of the reference and classic books in the field of Iranian history after Islam and especially during the Mongol era. This book deals with the Mongol attack on Iran in detail. This book has been studied and researched a lot from a linguistic and literary viewpoint. However, it has neglected the examination of Juvayni’s reports about the Mongol attack on Iran from a non-literary and linguistic viewpoint. In this study, we decided to investigate the story of the Mongol attack on Iran based on Juveyni's reports based on a new theory of war. The primary problem of this study, conducted using a descriptive-analytical method, is the reasons for the defeat of the Iranians against the Mongols. As we know, the Anushtegin (Khwarazmian) dynasty, which was in charge of affairs in Iran at that time, was a powerful kingdom that was even considered a serious competitor for the Caliphate of Baghdad. However, the Mongols were desert-wandering people at that time. The question that can be raised in this regard is what was the cause of the defeat of the Iranians against the Mongols? And is it possible to analyze and explain this failure by relying on the new perspectives of war? The importance of this study is that it deals with an ancient and historical text from the viewpoint of a new thinker named Clausewitz (1831-1780) and considers his view as a model for examining the causes of the defeat of the Iranians against the Mongols.
Mohammad Ansarifar - Hamidreza Soleymanian - Mehyar Alavi Moghaddam
Keywords : Tarikh Jahangushay Juvayni, Management and strategic principles, Mongol Attack, ، history of the 7th century
Among the educational levels, the secondary course is of special importance; Because at this point in time, students, in addition to entering a new stage, also enter a new stage in terms of emotional, moral and social development. Persian literature is one of the important lessons in this period. Therefore, compiling the curriculum of Persian books in the framework of the goals that lead the audience to them, is a priority for planners. One type of curriculum is the absurd curriculum, which shows how successful the curriculum authors have been in developing it. Considering the importance of these two types of curricula and also the special place of Persian literature in high school, in the present study, which is based on library sources and descriptive-analytical method, the analysis of the eighth grade Persian textbook based on the basics of the curriculum is absurd. Excess is paid. The results show that most of the topics in this book, after examining the three domains of language (lexical and grammatical levels), literary (phonetic levels, expression, novelty and meanings) and thought, are included in the redundant curriculum. Also, limited lessons should be considered an absurd curriculum. The most important factor that proves the redundancy of the lessons is: the use of heavy Arabic words, the use of ancient, abandoned and unfamiliar construction of some terms and words.
Zahra Taziki - Mahmoud Firouzimoghaddam - Abbas Kheir Abadi - Hossein Momeni Mahmouei
Keywords : Persian book, eighth grade, curriculum, redundant and absurd lessons
The Beauty is a natural phenomenon; thus, it has been defined in different ways throughout all the ages of history; sometimes externally and sometimes internally. In this regard, the authors are employing the analytical-comparative method and library tools to investigate Plato’s perspective on various types of beauty in poems of Mawlawi, they specifically focus on verses in which the term “beauty” and its synonyms such as beautiful, delicate, good-looking, elegant, attractive, charming, prettiness, etc. are mentioned. The analysis aims to delve into the profound concepts beyond these terms, considering Plato’s viewpoint on beauty. The research results are as follows: both thinkers believed in sensory, intellectual, and intuitive beauty. According to Plato, some types of sensory beauty, are perceptible through the five senses, but the possibility of perceptual error exists due to the involvement of the senses. A thought-provoking point is that some senses, in addition to perceiving the beauty of the external appearance, awaken thinking to reduce the margin of error. Mawlawi also believes in the mentioned senses, with the difference that he considers the beauties of the world as manifestations and reflections of divine beauty. Islamic mystics perceive the beauty of the created world as a reflection and image of divine beauty, considering the understanding of this beauty as a means to attain true beauty. In understanding intellectual beauty, both of them believe that limited access to specific beauties can be achieved through partial reason. Mawlawi refers to the complete intellect as the inner and divine intellect, while Plato names the complete intellect as "ideas" or dialectic. Both Plato and Mawlawi consider the source of all ethical virtues to be the complete intellect or the intellectual intellect. In the understanding of cognitive beauty, both Plato and Mawlawi believe in a type of beauty that surpasses human perception and intellect, considering it as cognitive beauty. While Plato does not term this beauty as good, Mawlawi describes it as intuitive and cognitive beauty.
mahsoumeh shakouri - Koros Karimpasandi - Naeemeh Kia Lashaki - Maryam Shad Mohammadi
Keywords : Beauty, Philosophy, Mystic, Intellect, and Knowledge
In the plot of Malekan's novel, the torment of this insulting satire of Hafez Shirazi is stated: súfi ye šahr bin ke çún loúqm ye šobhe mixúrad pârdúmš derâz bâd ân hayavân e xúš alafThe conquest of the novel by the rhetorical industry is the acquittal. This adaptation is a sign of the parody of mystical texts in the realm of torment One of the greatest social critics has been the role model of late literature. In the time of Abu Turab Khosravi, hypocrisy is still visible in Sufi heavens. This is a long-standing social pain, and the archetype of the breath dog, to The title of the theme is a new face in Malekan Azab's novel; the purpose of this article is to show the aspects of these examples and the extent to which Khosravi is influenced by classical literature. This article is descriptive-analytical According to Hafez's Divan, the narrator is the sheikh's tormentor in the kingdom. He is a multi-layered character, with a vicious and cruel background. It is unmasked. Before his hypocrisy. In the process of Sheikh's self-¬creation The issues of the unity of existence, the issue of evil and the sanctification of the devil, the soul of the matter have been discussed.
Pouran Alizadeh
Keywords : Sufi, Hafez School, Nafs Dog, Malekan Azab, Abu Torab Khosravi
The science of meanings, the main subject of which is eloquence, refers to a range of the most subtle aesthetic methods of speech and its effect. Among the linguistic capabilities of this science, which is expressed according to the situation and status to make the speech more effective, the secondary purposes of news and essays are that in rhetorical books, while discussing news and essays, they have addressed some of the secondary purposes of this type of speech, which is in the realm of its virtual However, the secondary purposes are not limited to the secondary meanings mentioned in these books and are more dynamic and more than the mentioned cases. Regarding the importance of this discussion and its role in examining and better understanding the word and its benefits in rhetoric, linguistics, literary criticism, grammar, etc., which are somehow related to the science of meanings, In this regard, it is necessary to refer to several cases that are effective in understanding and reaching the secondary meanings and purposes of words. For this purpose, allegorical sentences of the divine word are selected, so that by researching and examining them, we can find some signs of achieving the secondary meanings of the word. For a better explanation of Shahid's content, we have included some examples of Hafez's sweet poetry along with Qur'anic parables in achieving the secondary purposes of speech. The results show that the position and importance of several things such as: beginner, audience, speaker, innovative and expressive arts and music of speech, repetition of consonants and vowels, etc., are important in understanding the meanings and secondary purposes of speech can be effective.
Liela Alimoradi - Safdar Shaker - Ebrahim Zareifar
Keywords : Science of meanings, Secondary purposes, Allegorical words of the Quran, Review, Hafez simile

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